Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration

Saturday, February 17th, 2018
Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration

Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration

Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration

Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration

Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration

Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration

Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration

Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration

Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration

Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration

Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration

Here is a nice looking a 7.5 or so out of 10 cosmetically McIntosh MC240 stereo power amp. The chrome is mostly shiny with some minor pitting (see photos) also there is one area on the top where there is some more pitting – see the third photo. Inside (please view photos) looks 100% original – you will need to replace some parts to make this reliable the transformers all work and the amp passes signal, (with a slight hum) however one of the power tubes red plates when I fired it up to test (it was on a variac to attempt to reform the caps) I would recommend that this amp be thoroughly gone through by a qualified tech prior to use. The item “Vintage McIntosh MC240 stereo tube amplifier amp WORKS as-is needs restoration” is in sale since Friday, February 16, 2018. This item is in the category “Consumer Electronics\Vintage Electronics\Vintage Audio & Video\Vintage Amplifiers & Tube Amps”. The seller is “spinfresh” and is located in Portland, Oregon. This item can be shipped to United States.
  • Brand: McIntosh
  • Model: MC240
  • Type: Stereo Tube Power Amplifier
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States

HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

Sunday, February 11th, 2018
HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage

You are looking at a beautiful SCOTTKIT LK-72 Stereo Amplifier. Amplifier was brought up slowly on a variac and tested for functionality. Amplifier played music but one channel was weaker than the other. No further testing was done. Only includes GE 6U8 tubes – others were harvested for other projects. In very good cosmetic condition – please see bottom left corner issue and cracked loudness knob. Please view all photos and ask any/all questions. Item will be professionally packed and fully insured. The item “HH Scott LK-72 Tube Amplifier Stereo SCOTTKIT 299 296 7591 Vintage” is in sale since Thursday, February 01, 2018. This item is in the category “Consumer Electronics\Vintage Electronics\Vintage Audio & Video\Vintage Amplifiers & Tube Amps”. The seller is “cjwebber_89″ and is located in Detroit, Michigan. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Russian federation, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica.
  • Brand: Scottkit
  • Model: LK-72

Generic Vintage Stereo KT88 Vacuum Tube Amplifier Single End Class A 18W 1set

Wednesday, February 7th, 2018
Generic Vintage Stereo KT88 Vacuum Tube Amplifier Single End Class A 18W 1set

Generic Vintage Stereo KT88 Vacuum Tube Amplifier Single End Class A 18W 1set

Generic Vintage Stereo KT88 Vacuum Tube Amplifier Single End Class A 18W 1set

Generic Vintage Stereo KT88 Vacuum Tube Amplifier Single End Class A 18W 1set

Generic Vintage Stereo KT88 Vacuum Tube Amplifier Single End Class A 18W 1set

Generic Vintage Stereo KT88 Vacuum Tube Amplifier Single End Class A 18W 1set

Generic Vintage Stereo KT88 Vacuum Tube Amplifier Single End Class A 18W 1set

Generic Vintage Stereo KT88 Vacuum Tube Amplifier Single End Class A 18W 1set

You may also like. Brand new single end KT88 tube amplifier chass A. Power tubes: PSVANE Hifi KT88x2PCS. Voltage tubes: SHUGUANG 6J8PJx2PCS. Power transformer: 0.35 plate, thickness=60mm (114-60). Output transformer: 0.5mm high grade silicon plate(86-50). Mirror finish stainless steel chassis. Aluminum alloy front gear plate, CNC machined, anodized. High end audio connectors. Output power: 18Wx2 (super linear connection). Output impedance: 4ohm and 8ohm. Distortion: less than 1% (1KHz). Turret board chassis mount(not PCB board mount). Assembled tube amplifier:1PC. Tubes: HIFI KT882PCS, 6J8PJ2PCS, 5ZAPT1PC. We will put legal effort to make any. T or GST by yourself. Honour, we appreciate you very much. Thank you for visiting our store. The item “Generic Vintage Stereo KT88 Vacuum Tube Amplifier Single End Class A 18W 1set” is in sale since Thursday, April 13, 2017. This item is in the category “Consumer Electronics\Vintage Electronics\Vintage Audio & Video\Vintage Amplifiers & Tube Amps”. The seller is “czhstore2013″ and is located in SHENZHEN. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Type: Integrated Amplifier
  • Brand: Unbranded/Generic
  • MPN: Does Not Apply
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: China

Vintage McIntosh Mac 1700 Stereo Receiver. Tube Preamp Amp Integrated Hifi

Tuesday, February 6th, 2018
Vintage McIntosh Mac 1700 Stereo Receiver. Tube Preamp Amp Integrated Hifi

Vintage McIntosh Mac 1700 Stereo Receiver. Tube Preamp Amp Integrated Hifi

Vintage McIntosh Mac 1700 Stereo Receiver. Tube Preamp Amp Integrated Hifi

Vintage McIntosh Mac 1700 Stereo Receiver. Tube Preamp Amp Integrated Hifi

Vintage McIntosh Mac 1700 Stereo Receiver. Tube Preamp Amp Integrated Hifi

Vintage McIntosh Mac 1700 Stereo Receiver. Tube Preamp Amp Integrated Hifi

Vintage McIntosh Mac 1700 Stereo Receiver. Tube Preamp Amp Integrated Hifi

Up for your consideration is a Mcintosh MAC 1700 stereo receiver. This example has been very well cared for by it’s original owner and is in excellent physical and operational condition. The only flaw is the meter lamp is out. Unit plays well and sounds superb. Receiver will be professionally packed for safe transport. Have some ham gear your not using? 73s & Check out my other items! Please examine the photographs as there are an important part of the description in every listing. The item “Vintage McIntosh Mac 1700 Stereo Receiver. Tube Preamp Amp Integrated Hifi” is in sale since Monday, February 05, 2018. This item is in the category “Consumer Electronics\Vintage Electronics\Vintage Audio & Video\Vintage Stereo Receivers”. The seller is “jaguar-dog-2008″ and is located in Guilford, Connecticut. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Russian federation, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica.
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Brand: McIntosh
  • Model: Mac 1700

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

Sunday, February 4th, 2018
EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER

EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO. Cosmetically it’s in good condition with minimal scratches. I did not cleaned the front because the lettering may came out. Please see all the pictures for details of cosmetics. More detailed pictures will be send upon request. One of the tubes (EZ81) is not good, I will replace it and put a new picture. This is a very nice example of a very desirable amplifier, could use a full restoration but is a good starting point that is plug and play. The item “EICO HF-81 Vintage INTEGRATED STEREO TUBE AMPLIFIER” is in sale since Tuesday, April 04, 2017. This item is in the category “Consumer Electronics\Vintage Electronics\Vintage Audio & Video\Vintage Amplifiers & Tube Amps”. The seller is “my-baby-world” and is located in Oakland, California. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Brand: EICO
  • Type: Tube Amplifier
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Model: HF-81

Vintage Fisher Amp Chassis 481-a Vacuum Tube Stereo Power Amplifier 7189 Pp

Monday, January 29th, 2018
Vintage Fisher Amp Chassis 481-a Vacuum Tube Stereo Power Amplifier 7189 Pp

Vintage Fisher Amp Chassis 481-a Vacuum Tube Stereo Power Amplifier 7189 Pp

Vintage Fisher Amp Chassis 481-a Vacuum Tube Stereo Power Amplifier 7189 Pp

Vintage Fisher Amp Chassis 481-a Vacuum Tube Stereo Power Amplifier 7189 Pp

Vintage Fisher Amp Chassis 481-a Vacuum Tube Stereo Power Amplifier 7189 Pp

Vintage Fisher Amp Chassis 481-a Vacuum Tube Stereo Power Amplifier 7189 Pp

Vintage Fisher Amp Chassis 481-a Vacuum Tube Stereo Power Amplifier 7189 Pp

Vintage Fisher Amp Chassis 481-a Vacuum Tube Stereo Power Amplifier 7189 Pp

HERE IS A VERY NICE VINTAGE FISHER 481-A VACUUM TUBE STEREO POWER AMPLIFIER. IT IS A 7189 PUSH PULL STEREO AMP THAT ALSO USES 2 12AX7 DRIVER TUBES. AS SOME OF YOU PROBABLY KNOW THIS IS A CONSOLE AMP. IT WAS ORIGINALLY DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH THE TUNER PREAMP IN THE CONSOLE. THIS ONE HAS HAD THE MODIFICATIONS DONE TO MAKE IT A FREESTANDING STEREO POWER AMP. IT CAN BE USED WITH ANY GOOD STEREO PREAMPLIFIER. THE MODIFICATIONS ONLY INVOLVE A COUPLE RESISTOR CHANGES AND A CURRENT LIMITER HAS BEEN ADDED ON THE INCOMING POWER AS EXTRA PROTECTION FOR THE AMP. ALL THE VOLTAGES IN THE AMP HAVE BEEN CHECKED AND THE OUTPUT TUBE BIAS SET. IT SOUNDS GREAT THROUGH MY JBL CENTURY’S. IT HAS A NICE QUAD OF GE 7189S INSTALLED. PRETTY MUCH READY TO GO. THE ELECTROLYTICS ARE ORIGINAL SO CHANGING THOSE SOON MAY BE A CONSIDERATION. THE AMP IS QUIET NOW WITH NO APPREICABLE HUM. NORMAL FISHER BUILD QUALITY. I WILL INCLUDE THE ORIGINAL SPEAKER SELECTOR FROM THE CONSOLE. DON’T MISS THIS ONE. The item “VINTAGE FISHER AMP CHASSIS 481-A VACUUM TUBE STEREO POWER AMPLIFIER 7189 PP” is in sale since Monday, January 15, 2018. This item is in the category “Consumer Electronics\Vintage Electronics\Vintage Audio & Video\Vintage Amplifiers & Tube Amps”. The seller is “indsales” and is located in Belleville, Illinois. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Brand: THE FISHER
  • Type: VACUUM TUBE STEREO POWER AMPLIFIER
  • Bundle Listing: No
  • Model: 481-A
  • MPN: Does Not Apply
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States

Vtg 50s 60s The Fisher 6BQ5 EL84 Tube Amplifier 480A 480-A 460a Stereo Amp NICE

Sunday, January 28th, 2018
Vtg 50s 60s The Fisher 6BQ5 EL84 Tube Amplifier 480A 480-A 460a Stereo Amp NICE

Vtg 50s 60s The Fisher 6BQ5 EL84 Tube Amplifier 480A 480-A 460a Stereo Amp NICE

Vtg 50s 60s The Fisher 6BQ5 EL84 Tube Amplifier 480A 480-A 460a Stereo Amp NICE

Vtg 50s 60s The Fisher 6BQ5 EL84 Tube Amplifier 480A 480-A 460a Stereo Amp NICE

Vtg 50s 60s The Fisher 6BQ5 EL84 Tube Amplifier 480A 480-A 460a Stereo Amp NICE

Vtg 50s 60s The Fisher 6BQ5 EL84 Tube Amplifier 480A 480-A 460a Stereo Amp NICE

Vtg 50s 60s The Fisher 6BQ5 EL84 Tube Amplifier 480A 480-A 460a Stereo Amp NICE

Vtg 50s 60s The Fisher 6BQ5 EL84 Tube Amplifier 480A 480-A 460a Stereo Amp NICE

Vtg 50s 60s The Fisher 6BQ5 EL84 Tube Amplifier 480A 480-A 460a Stereo Amp NICE

Vtg 50s 60s The Fisher 6BQ5 EL84 Tube Amplifier 480A 480-A 460a Stereo Amp NICE

1962 Stereo Tube Amplifier Here’s a beautiful Fisher 6BQ5 amplifier from a 1962 console… I was planning on restoring this myself, but I have no time so thought I would pass it on to someone else. This is all original, straight from the console! The transformers are all good, though due to it’s age this will obviously need a re-cap, etc, before operating. Excellent original condition, has the original Fisher Great Britain 12AX7 ECC83 tubes, both tested very strong, along with the 6BQ5 and 7189 tubes which all tested good too. The RCA 7189 tube showed a short on pin 9. These Fisher amps sound simply awesome, and are getting harder to find… Jimmy O Please see my other vintage Modern items, currently listed! The item “Vtg 50s 60s The Fisher 6BQ5 EL84 Tube Amplifier 480A 480-A 460a Stereo Amp NICE” is in sale since Thursday, January 25, 2018. This item is in the category “Consumer Electronics\Vintage Electronics\Vintage Audio & Video\Vintage Amplifiers & Tube Amps”. The seller is “hi-fidelity” and is located in Long Branch, New Jersey. This item can be shipped worldwide.

Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier

Sunday, January 28th, 2018
Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier

Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier

Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier

Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier

Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier

Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier

Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier

Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier

Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier

Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier

Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier

Large transformer looks like a replacement. The item “Vintage RCA Stereo Tube Amplifier” is in sale since Thursday, December 14, 2017. This item is in the category “Consumer Electronics\Vintage Electronics\Vintage Audio & Video\Vintage Amplifiers & Tube Amps”. The seller is “eddysmusicco” and is located in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Russian federation, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica.
  • Brand: RCA
  • Type: Power Amplifier
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States

Dynaco Dynakit Stereo 35 Tube Amplifier New Output Tubes, Mullard 7247, Vintage

Wednesday, January 24th, 2018
Dynaco Dynakit Stereo 35 Tube Amplifier New Output Tubes, Mullard 7247, Vintage

Dynaco Dynakit Stereo 35 Tube Amplifier New Output Tubes, Mullard 7247, Vintage

Dynaco Dynakit Stereo 35 Tube Amplifier New Output Tubes, Mullard 7247, Vintage

Dynaco Dynakit Stereo 35 Tube Amplifier New Output Tubes, Mullard 7247, Vintage

Dynaco Dynakit Stereo 35 Tube Amplifier New Output Tubes, Mullard 7247, Vintage

This listing is for one Dynakit Stereo-35 in very good, clean condition. This amp is equipped with new Electro Harmonix EL84EH output tubes, and original Dynaco 7247 tubes made by Mullard. The unit has been rewired and recapped, serviced, tested, and cleaned by our technician. Original transformer has been replaced with a non-original transformer (68P026-3 596415) at the same specifications. Famous among audiophiles, this small but mighty tube amp drives speakers with precision and dynamic detail. An excellent tube source component, it makes for a great addition for any stereo system. Power Output: 35 watts continuous, 45 watts, IHF Music Power (both channels). Frequency Response: ± 1 dB from 10 cps to 40,000 cps. Power Response: 20 cps to 20,000 cps without exceeding 1% distortion within 1 dB of 17.5 watts each channel. Intermodulation Distortion: Less than 1% at 17.5 watts each channel. Less than 0.1% at average listening levels. Hum and Noise: Inaudible; more than 80 dB below rated output. Sensitivity: 1 volt input for 17.5 watts output (each channel). Input Impedance: 500,000 ohms. Output Impedance: 8 and 16 ohms. Damping Factor: 10 from 20 cps to 20,000 cps. Minimum Channel Separation: 80 dB. Power Consumption: 100 watts, 50/60 cycle a. Tube Complement: 7247 (2), 6BQ5/EL84/7189 (4), silicon diodes (2). Size:4 high, 13 wide, 5 ½ deep. Decibel Audio is a retail store and custom installation business in the neighborhood of Wicker Park in Chicago, IL. We have serviced the Chicagoland area with both new and vintage equipment for over 20 years. Visit our store at 1429 N Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, IL 60622. We are Authorized Dealers for Audioquest, Benz Micro, Cambridge Audio, Cary Audio, Clearaudio, Creek, Crestron, Denon, Draper Screens, Dynaudio, Epos, Goldring, Grado, Harbeth, Jolida, Music Hall, James Loudspeaker, KEF, Marantz, Parasound, Pro-Ject, PS Audio, Plateau, Rogue Audio, Russound, Sonos, Stewart Filmscreen, Samsung, Skylan, Yamaha, and more. The item “Dynaco Dynakit Stereo 35 Tube Amplifier New Output Tubes, Mullard 7247, Vintage” is in sale since Tuesday, January 16, 2018. This item is in the category “Consumer Electronics\Vintage Electronics\Vintage Audio & Video\Vintage Amplifiers & Tube Amps”. The seller is “decibelaudio.com” and is located in Chicago, Illinois. This item can be shipped to United States.
  • Type: Power Amplifier
  • Brand: Dynaco
  • Model: ST-35
  • MPN: Does Not Apply
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States

VINTAGE Karlson TUBE Amp Stereo SPEAKERS c. 1958 UNIVERSITY 6303 15 Diffaxial EX

Tuesday, January 23rd, 2018
VINTAGE Karlson TUBE Amp Stereo SPEAKERS c. 1958 UNIVERSITY 6303 15 Diffaxial EX

VINTAGE Karlson TUBE Amp Stereo SPEAKERS c. 1958 UNIVERSITY 6303 15 Diffaxial EX

VINTAGE Karlson TUBE Amp Stereo SPEAKERS c. 1958 UNIVERSITY 6303 15 Diffaxial EX

VINTAGE Karlson TUBE Amp Stereo SPEAKERS c. 1958 UNIVERSITY 6303 15 Diffaxial EX

VINTAGE Karlson TUBE Amp Stereo SPEAKERS c. 1958 UNIVERSITY 6303 15 Diffaxial EX

Wonderful, estate fresh pair, original condition. Highly regarded Karlson design cabinets in solid pine (you could veneer or paint them, doesn’t look like a major project). Early, made in NY, University 6303 15 Diffaxial 3 way drivers and tone control. Other than missing one control knob, complete, excellent vintage condition, but did notice a couple cuts, they’ll need a fresh set of cables. Easily driven with tube amplifiers. Put them up against Altec, JBL, Klipsch, etc from the golden era. Recently picked up a nice NAD set up with a CD and a 533 Turntable, wanted to test them, these speakers were nearby. Aja on vinyl sounded so sweet. The item “VINTAGE Karlson TUBE Amp Stereo SPEAKERS c. 1958 UNIVERSITY 6303 15 Diffaxial EX” is in sale since Monday, January 15, 2018. This item is in the category “Consumer Electronics\Vintage Electronics\Vintage Audio & Video\Vintage Speakers”. The seller is “cydo97″ and is located in Contoocook, New Hampshire. This item can’t be shipped, the buyer must pick up the item.
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Featured Refinements: University Speaker